Four Canadian graduate students in pediatric dentistry participated in the 3M ESPE Graduate Student Research Presentations, held during the Canadian Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (CAPD) Annual General Meeting in Edmonton in September. The graduate students presented their research to a panel of judges, and the winning student was awarded a $1000 cash prize. The following are condensed versions of the abstracts submitted for this year's pediatric dental research event.
GLUT2 and TAS1R2 genotype and risk of dental caries
Dr. Tabitha Chng (University of Toronto)
Supervisors: A. El-Sohemy, D. Nielsen, C. Wessman, K. Eny, G. Kulkarni
Although the role of microbiological and environmental factors in dental caries has been studied extensively, the relative contribution of genetic predispositions has not been clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine whether a common polymorphism in the TAS1R2 (Ile191Val) and GLUT2 (Thr110Ile) genes is associated with dental caries. Clinical and radiographic examinations were conducted by a single examiner on 80 healthy Caucasian individuals between ages 21 to 31 who were previously genotyped for the TAS1R2 and GLUT2 polymorphisms. Caries prevalence was assessed using 3 different caries scores: DMFT, DMFT + radiographs and International Caries Detection and Assessment System. A significant increase in DMFT scores was shown in carriers of the Ile allele of GLUT2 and carriers of the TAS1R2 gene polymorphism consistently demonstrated lower caries scores. The results suggest that variations in the GLUT2 and TAS1R2 genes are associated with risk of dental caries.
Novel oral rinse assay for the quantification of oral neutrophils and comparison to the standard periodontal exam in pregnant women
Dr. Sabrina Huda (University of Toronto)
Supervisors: H. Tenenbaum, W. Whittle, M. Glogauer, H. Lawrence, M. Goldberg
The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure periodontal inflammatory disease in pregnant women. Salivary neutrophil counts in pregnant women were obtained using a new non-invasive oral rinse assay, to assess the women's periodontal health status. Periodontal examinations were performed on 36 pregnant women. Neutrophils were counted after each 10 mL saline rinse. Preliminary results showed a significant positive correlation between neutrophil counts and periodontal disease severity, as measured by bleeding on probing and the modified gingival index. The results suggest a correlation between neutrophils and periodontal disease in pregnant women. This new rinse assay may be used as a screening test for periodontal inflammation in pregnant women.
A retrospective analysis of the success of fixed space maintainers in a private practice pediatric dental office and a survey of the use of fixed space maintainers among pediatric dentists and orthodontists
Dr. Lori Waichenberg (University of Toronto)
Supervisors: P. Andrews, M. Sigal. K. Titley, B. Tompson
The objective of this study was to evaluate the success and longevity of fixed space maintainers and to evaluate the use of, attitudes toward and perceived difficulties with these devices. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who had fixed space maintainers placed by a sole dental practitioner in a private practice pediatric dental office. Almost 900 appliances were included in the study. Further to this, a web-based online survey was sent out to a random sample of 1000 pediatric dentists and 1000 orthodontists regarding their use of the devices. The overall success rate for fixed space maintainers was 86.7%. The most common reasons cited for failure of the devices was cement loss (47.3%) and breakage (30.4%). The results show that fixed space maintainers have a high success rate and should be recommended for use in patients when indicated.
Evaluation of an oral swab assay as a quantitative measure of periodontal inflammation in patients with special needs
Dr. Anita Moosani (University of Toronto)
Supervisors: M. Sigal, H. Tenenbaum, M. Glogauer, H. Lawrence, M. Goldberg
The objective of this study was to validate and assess the feasibility of using an oral swab assay of oral neutrophils as a quantitative measure of periodontal inflammation in uncooperative patients with special needs. Periodontal examinations and oral swabs were performed on patients scheduled for comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia at Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital Dental Program for Persons with Disabilities. These measurements were compared to neutrophil counts taken from oral swabs obtained at the patient's recall examination. To date, 49 patients have been assessed under general anesthesia, but data collection during recall exams is still in progress. Oral neutrophil counts derived from swabs are expected to correlate significantly with conventional parameters of gingival inflammation and provide a standardized method for clinical measurement.